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BY Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem

Adultery is considered a sin in all religions. The Bible decrees the death sentence for both the adulterer and the adulteress (Lev. 20:10). Islam also equally punishes both the adulterer and the adulteress (24:2). However, the Quranic definition of adultery is very different from the Biblical definition. Adultery, according to the Quran, is the involvement of a married man or a married woman in an extramarital affair. The Bible only considers the extramarital affair of a married woman as adultery (Leviticus 20:10, Deuteronomy 22:22, Proverbs 6:20-7:27).

"If a man is found sleeping with another man's wife, both the man who slept with her and the woman must die. You must purge the evil from Israel" (Deut. 22:22).

"If a man commits adultery with another man's wife both the adulterer and the adulteress must be put to death" (Lev. 20:10).

According to the Biblical definition, if a married man sleeps with an unmarried woman, this is not considered a crime at all. The married man who has extramarital affairs with unmarried women is not an adulterer and the unmarried women involved with him are not adulteresses. The crime of adultery is committed only when a man, whether married or single, sleeps with a married woman. In this case the man is considered adulterer, even if he is not married, and the woman is considered adulteress. In short, adultery is any illicit sexual intercourse involving a married woman. The extramarital affair of a married man is not per se a crime in the Bible. Why is the dual moral standard? According to Encyclopaedia Judaica, the wife was considered to be the husband's possession and adultery constituted a violation of the husband's exclusive right to her; the wife as the husband's possession had no such right to him. 15 That is, if a man had sexual intercourse with a married woman, he would be violating the property of another man and, thus, he should be punished.

To the present day in Israel, if a married man indulges in an extramarital affair with an unmarried woman, his children by that woman are considered legitimate. But, if a married woman has an affair with another man, whether married or not married, her children by that man are not only illegitimate but they are considered bastards and are forbidden to marry any other Jews except converts and other bastards. This ban is handed down to the children's descendants for 10 generations until the taint of adultery is presumably weakened. 16

The Quran, on the other hand, never considers any woman to be the possession of any man. The Quran eloquently describes the relationship between the spouses by saying:

" And among His signs is that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquility with them and He has put love and mercy between your hearts: verily in that are signs for those who reflect" (30:21).

This is the Quranic conception of marriage: love, mercy, and tranquility, not possession and double standards.

NOTES

 

1. The Globe and Mail, Oct. 4,1994.

 

2. Leonard J. Swidler, Women in Judaism: the Status of Women in Formative Judaism (Metuchen, N.J: Scarecrow Press, 1976) p. 115.

 

3. Thena Kendath, "Memories of an Orthodox youth" in Susannah Heschel, ed. On being a Jewish Feminist (New York: Schocken Books, 1983), pp. 96-97.

 

4. Swidler, op. cit., pp. 80-81.

 

5. Rosemary R. Ruether, "Christianity", in Arvind Sharma, ed., Women in World Religions (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987) p. 209.

 

6. For all the sayings of the prominent Saints, see Karen Armstrong, The Gospel According to Woman (London: Elm Tree Books, 1986) pp. 52-62. See also Nancy van Vuuren, The Subversion of Women as Practiced by Churches, Witch-Hunters, and Other Sexists (Philadelphia: Westminister Press) pp. 28-30.

 

7. Swidler, op. cit., p. 140.

 

8. Denise L. Carmody, "Judaism", in Arvind Sharma, ed., op. cit., p. 197.

 

9. Swidler, op. cit., p. 137.

 

10. Ibid., p. 138.

 

11. Sally Priesand, Judaism and the New Woman (New York: Behrman House, Inc., 1975) p. 24.

 

12. Swidler, op. cit., p. 115.

 

13. Lesley Hazleton, Israeli Women The Reality Behind the Myths (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977) p. 41.

 

14. Gage, op. cit. p. 142.

 

15. Jeffrey H. Togay, "Adultery," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. II, col. 313. Also, see Judith Plaskow, Standing Again at Sinai: Judaism from a Feminist Perspective (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1990) pp. 170-177.

 

16. Hazleton, op. cit., pp. 41-42.

 

17. Swidler, op. cit., p. 141.

 

18. Matilda J. Gage, Woman, Church, and State (New York: Truth Seeker Company, 1893) p. 141.

 

19. Louis M. Epstein, The Jewish Marriage Contract (New York: Arno Press, 1973) p. 149.

 

20. Swidler, op. cit., p. 142.

 

21. Epstein, op. cit., pp. 164-165.

 

22. Ibid., pp. 112-113. See also Priesand, op. cit., p. 15.

 

23. James A. Brundage, Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987) p. 88.

 

24. Ibid., p. 480.

 

25. R. Thompson, Women in Stuart England and America (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974) p. 162.

 

26. Mary Murray, The Law of the Father (London: Routledge, 1995) p. 67.

 

27. Gage, op. cit., p. 143.

 

28. For example, see Jeffrey Lang, Struggling to Surrender, (Beltsville, MD: Amana Publications, 1994) p. 167.

 

29. Elsayyed Sabiq, Fiqh al Sunnah (Cairo: Darul Fatah lile'lam Al-Arabi, 11th edition, 1994), vol. 2, pp. 218-229.

 

30. Abdel-Haleem Abu Shuqqa, Tahreer al Mar'aa fi Asr al Risala (Kuwait: Dar al Qalam, 1990) pp. 109-112.

 

31. Leila Badawi, "Islam", in Jean Holm and John Bowker, ed., Women in Religion (London: Pinter Publishers, 1994) p. 102.

 

32. Amir H. Siddiqi, Studies in Islamic History (Karachi: Jamiyatul Falah Publications, 3rd edition, 1967) p. 138.

 

33. Epstein, op. cit., p. 196.

 

34. Swidler, op. cit., pp. 162-163.

 

35. The Toronto Star, Apr. 8, 1995.

 

36. Sabiq, op. cit., pp. 318-329. See also Muhammad al Ghazali, Qadaya al Mar'aa bin al Taqaleed al Rakida wal Wafida (Cairo: Dar al Shorooq, 4th edition, 1992) pp. 178-180.

 

37. Ibid., pp. 313-318.

 

38. David W. Amram, The Jewish Law of Divorce According to Bible and Talmud ( Philadelphia: Edward Stern & CO., Inc., 1896) pp. 125-126.

 

39. Epstein, op. cit., p. 219.

 

40. Ibid, pp 156-157.

 

41. Muhammad Abu Zahra, Usbu al Fiqh al Islami (Cairo: al Majlis al A'la li Ri'ayat al Funun, 1963) p. 66.

 

42. Epstein, op. cit., p. 122.

 

43. Armstrong, op. cit., p. 8.

 

44. Epstein, op. cit., p. 175.

 

45. Ibid., p. 121.

 

46. Gage, op. cit., p. 142.

 

47. B. Aisha Lemu and Fatima Heeren, Woman in Islam (London: Islamic Foundation, 1978) p. 23.

 

48. Hazleton, op. cit., pp. 45-46.

 

49. Ibid., p. 47.

 

50. Ibid., p. 49.

 

51. Swidler, op. cit., pp. 144-148.

 

52. Hazleton, op. cit., pp 44-45.

 

53. Eugene Hillman, Polygamy Reconsidered: African Plural Marriage and the Christian Churches (New York: Orbis Books, 1975) p. 140.

 

54. Ibid., p. 17.

 

55. Ibid., pp. 88-93.

 

56. Ibid., pp. 92-97.

 

57. Philip L. Kilbride, Plural Marriage For Our Times (Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey, 1994) pp. 108-109.

 

58. The Weekly Review, Aug. 1, 1987.

 

59. Kilbride, op. cit., p. 126.

 

60. John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A history of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1988) p. 87.

 

61. Ute Frevert, Women in German History: from Bourgeois Emancipation to Sexual Liberation (New York: Berg Publishers, 1988) pp. 263-264.

 

62. Ibid., pp. 257-258.

 

63. Sabiq, op. cit., p. 191.

 

64. Hillman, op. cit., p. 12.

 

65. Nathan Hare and Julie Hare, ed., Crisis in Black Sexual Politics (San Francisco: Black Think Tank, 1989) p. 25.

 

66. Ibid., p. 26.

 

67. Kilbride, op. cit., p. 94.

 

68. Ibid., p. 95.

 

69. Ibid.

 

70. Ibid., pp. 95-99.

 

71. Ibid., p. 118.

 

72. Lang, op. cit., p. 172.

 

73. Kilbride, op. cit., pp. 72-73.

 

74. Sabiq, op. cit., pp. 187-188.

 

75. Abdul Rahman Doi, Woman in Shari'ah (London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1994) p. 76.

 

76. Menachem M. Brayer, The Jewish Woman in Rabbinic Literature: A Psychosocial Perspective (Hoboken, N.J: Ktav Publishing House, 1986) p. 239.

 

77. Ibid., pp. 316-317. Also see Swidler, op. cit., pp. 121-123.

 

78. Ibid., p. 139.

 

79. Susan W. Schneider, Jewish and Female (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984) p. 237.

 

80. Ibid., pp. 238-239.

 

81. Alexandra Wright, "Judaism", in Holm and Bowker, ed., op. cit., pp. 128-129

 

82. Clara M. Henning, "Cannon Law and the Battle of the Sexes" in Rosemary R. Ruether, ed., Religion and Sexism: Images of Woman in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974) p. 272.

 

83. Donald B. Kraybill, The riddle of the Amish Culture (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989) p. 56.

 

84. Khalil Gibran, Thoughts and Meditations (New York: Bantam Books, 1960) p. 28.

 

85. The Times, Nov. 18, 1993.

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