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Did mankind tamper with the Old Testament?

Misheal A. Al-Kadhi
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"And because of their breaking their covenant, We have cursed them 
and made hard their hearts. They change words from their places and 
have abandoned a good part of the message that was sent to them. 
And you will not cease to discover deceit in them, except a few of 
them. But forgive them and overlook(their misdeed). Verily! Allah 
loves the kindly".  The Qur'an, Al-Maidah(5):13. 

"O Messenger!(Mohammad) Do no be grieved by those who vie with 
one another in the race to disbelief, of such as say with their mouths: 
"We believe" but their hearts believe not, and of the Jews: of them are 
those who listen eagerly to lies -listener to others who have not come 
to you. They change the words from their places; they say: If you are 
given this then take it, but if you are not given this then beware! He 
whom Allah dooms unto sin, you (by your efforts) will avail him 
naught against Allah. Those are they for whom the will of Allah is that 
He cleanse not their hearts; for them there is a disgrace in this world, 
and in the Hereafter a great torment". The Qur'an, Al-Maidah(5):41. 

The Jews have, from one generation to another, handed down their 
Old Testament, as the faultless words of Moses (pbuh) and the 
prophets.  The "Old testament" is made up of the "Torah" (Tawrat), 
(which is also called "the Pentateuch"), and the "books of the 
prophets".  
The "Torah" consists of the first five books of the Old Testament.  
They are believed by the Jews to have been written by Moses (pbuh).  
These five books are: "Genesis", "Exodus", "Leviticus", "Numbers", 
and "Deuteronomy".  After the Christians decided to incorporate the 
Old Testament into their Bible, they began to study these books in 
great detail.. 

For countless ages, the only book of history available to Christians 
and Jews was the Old Testament.  When someone wanted to know 
what happened in the past, they would go back and study the Old 
Testament to find the answer.  New theories about history literally 
lived and died by their conformance to what the Old Testament 
taught.  Then the discrepancies began to be noticed. 

Once mankind began to study the OT in detail, comparing the various 
passages which referred to the same topic in order to obtain as much 
detail as possible, they began to notice conflicting accounts of many 
matters as well as other problems.  For instance, in the eleventh 
century, it was noticed that the list of Edomite kings in Genesis 36 
names kings who lived long after Moses was dead.  Then people 
began to notice such statements as "to this day" something is true, 
which implies that the author was looking back at these matters 
through history and has seen that they have endured. 

After this, it was noticed that in the beginning verses of the OT 
manuscripts, Deuteronomy says: "These are the words that Moses 
spoke to the children of Israel across the Jordan...".  They noticed 
that the words "across the Jordan" refers to people who are on the 
opposite side of the Jordan river to the author.  But the alleged 
author, Moses himself, was never supposed to have been in Israel in 
his life. 

It was also noticed that Moses speaks in detail in Deuteronomy 34:5-
10 about how he died and where he was buried.  Moses also calls 
himself the most humble man on earth in Numbers 12:3 (would the 
most humble man on earth call himself the most humble man on 
earth?).  In Deuteronomy 34:10 we read "And there arose not a 
prophet since in Israel like unto Moses".  This also implies that the 
author was looking back at Moses through history a long time after 
Moses's death.  Now the flood gates were opened and countless other 
discrepancies began to show up. 

In the beginning, it was claimed that Moses wrote the Pentateuch 
(Five "books of Moses") and anyone contesting this fact would be 
severely punished or worse.  However, when these matters started to 
become well known, it became necessary to find explanations.  For 
example, the first explanation presented for the verses referring to the 
death of Moses was that Moses (pbuh) had written his books, but that 
later prophets, as well as "inspired" scribes (who could also be 
considered prophets), had later on added on a couple of lines here and 
there.  In this manner the text remained 100% the "inspiration" of 
God.  This explanation, however, did not stand up to scrutiny because 
the style and literary characteristics of the verses are the same 
throughout.  For instance, the verses which describe the death and 
burial of Moses exhibit the same literary characteristics as the verses 
before and after them.  Thus, they must have been written by the same 
person.

The Doublets:
---------------- 
After this, the trend became to explain any and all discrepancies 
through abstractism and elaborate interpretations, or through the 
introduction of additional narrative details that did not appear in the 
biblical text.  Around this time, a startling new discovery was made.  
It was noticed that the stories in the five books of Moses were made 
up of doublets.  A doublet is a case of one story being told twice.  
Even in the English translation of the Bible, the doublets are 
noticeable.  These doublets have been masterfully intertwined so that 
they become one narrative. 


For example, there are doublets of the creation of the world, the 
covenant between God and Abraham, the naming of Isaac, Abraham's 
claim that his wife Sarah was his sister, the story of Jacob's journey to 
Mesopotamia, Jacob's revelation at Beth-El,.......and on and on.  In 
many cases these doublets actually contradict one another.  The 
apologists once again jumped up with an explanation in hand.  They 
claimed that the doublets were complementary and not contradictive.  
It was claimed that they came to teach us a lesson by their "apparent" 
contradiction.  However, this claim did not hold water for long.  The 
reason is that not long after, it was discovered that when the doublets 
were separated into two separate accounts, each account was almost 
always consistent about the name of the deity that it used.  One would 
always refer to God as Yahweh/Jehovah.  This document was called 
"J".  The other always referred to Him as Elohim(God).  It was called 
"E".  There were various other literary characteristics which were 
then found to be common to one group or the other.  It became 
obvious that someone had taken two separate accounts of the ministry 
of Moses (pbuh), cut them up, and then woven them together quite 
masterfully so that their actions would not be discovered until 
countless centuries later. 

Once this startling discovery was made, the Old Testament was once 
again placed under the scrutiny of scholars and it was discovered that 
the Pentateuch was not made up of two major source documents but 
FOUR.  It was discovered that some stories were not only doublets, 
but triplets.  Additional literary characteristics were identified for 
these documents.  The third source was called P (for Priestly), and the 
fourth D (for Deuteronomy).  In the end it was concluded that the 
first four "books of Moses" were the result of the merging of three 
separate accounts which were called J, E, and P, and the book of 
Deuteronomy was found to be a separate account which was called 
D.  The person (or persons) who collected and intertwined these 
sources was called "The Redactor".  Let us have a look at an example 
of these doublets from Genesis 6:5 to 8:22. The Jehovah(J) text is in 
regular type, THE PRIESTLY(P) IN CAPITALS: 

Genesis 6:
------------- 
Genesis 6:5  And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in 
the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was 
only evil continually. 
Genesis 6:6  And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the 
earth, and it grieved him at his heart. 
Genesis 6:7  And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have 
created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the 
creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have 
made them. 
Genesis 6:8  But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord. 
Genesis 6:9  THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF NOAH: 
NOAH WAS A JUST MAN AND PERFECT IN HIS 
GENERATIONS, AND NOAH WALKED WITH GOD. 
Genesis 6:10  AND NOAH BEGAT THREE SONS, SHEM, HAM, 
AND JAPHETH. 
Genesis 6:11  THE EARTH ALSO WAS CORRUPT BEFORE 
GOD, AND THE EARTH WAS FILLED WITH VIOLENCE. 
Genesis 6:12  AND GOD LOOKED UPON THE EARTH, AND, 
BEHOLD, IT WAS CORRUPT; FOR ALL FLESH HAD 
CORRUPTED HIS WAY UPON THE EARTH. 
Genesis 6:13  AND GOD SAID UNTO NOAH, THE END OF ALL 
FLESH IS COME BEFORE ME; FOR THE EARTH IS FILLED 
WITH VIOLENCE THROUGH THEM; AND, BEHOLD, I WILL 
DESTROY THEM WITH THE EARTH. 
Genesis 6:14  MAKE THEE AN ARK OF GOPHER WOOD; 
ROOMS SHALT THOU MAKE IN THE ARK, AND SHALT 
PITCH IT WITHIN AND WITHOUT WITH PITCH. 
Genesis 6:15  AND THIS IS THE FASHION WHICH THOU 
SHALT MAKE IT OF: THE LENGTH OF THE ARK SHALL BE 
THREE HUNDRED CUBITS, THE BREADTH OF IT FIFTY 
CUBITS, AND THE HEIGHT OF IT THIRTY CUBITS. 
Genesis 6:16  A WINDOW SHALT THOU MAKE TO THE ARK, 
AND IN A CUBIT SHALT THOU FINISH IT ABOVE; AND THE 
DOOR OF THE ARK SHALT THOU SET IN THE SIDE 
THEREOF; WITH LOWER, SECOND, AND THIRD STORIES 
SHALT THOU MAKE IT. 
Genesis 6:17  AND, BEHOLD, I, EVEN I, DO BRING A FLOOD 
OF WATERS UPON THE EARTH, TO DESTROY ALL FLESH, 
WHEREIN IS THE BREATH OF LIFE, FROM UNDER HEAVEN; 
AND EVERY THING THAT IS IN THE EARTH SHALL DIE. 
Genesis 6:18  BUT WITH THEE WILL I ESTABLISH MY 
COVENANT; AND THOU SHALT COME INTO THE ARK, 
THOU, AND THY SONS, AND THY WIFE, AND THY SONS' 
WIVES WITH THEE. 
Genesis 6:19  AND OF EVERY LIVING THING OF ALL FLESH, 
TWO OF EVERY SORT SHALT THOU BRING INTO THE ARK, 
TO KEEP THEM ALIVE WITH THEE; THEY SHALL BE MALE 
AND FEMALE. 
Genesis 6:20  OF FOWLS AFTER THEIR KIND, AND OF 
CATTLE AFTER THEIR KIND, OF EVERY CREEPING THING 
OF THE EARTH AFTER HIS KIND, TWO OF EVERY SORT 
SHALL COME UNTO THEE, TO KEEP THEM ALIVE. 
Genesis 6:21  AND TAKE THOU UNTO THEE OF ALL FOOD 
THAT IS EATEN, AND THOU SHALT GATHER IT TO THEE; 
AND IT SHALL BE FOR FOOD FOR THEE, AND FOR THEM. 
Genesis 6:22  THUS DID NOAH; ACCORDING TO ALL THAT 
GOD COMMANDED HIM, SO DID HE. 

Genesis 7:
------------- 
Genesis 7:1  And the Lord said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy 
house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this 
generation. 
Genesis 7:2  Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, 
the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the 
male and his female. 
Genesis 7:3  Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the 
female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. 
Genesis 7:4  For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the 
earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I 
have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth. 
Genesis 7:5  And Noah did according unto all that the Lord 
commanded him. 
Genesis 7:6  AND NOAH WAS SIX HUNDRED YEARS OLD 
WHEN THE FLOOD OF WATERS WAS UPON THE EARTH. 
Genesis 7:7  And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his 
sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood. 
Genesis 7:8  OF CLEAN BEASTS, AND OF BEASTS THAT ARE 
NOT CLEAN, AND OF FOWLS, AND OF EVERY THING THAT 
CREEPETH UPON THE EARTH, 
Genesis 7:9  THERE WENT IN TWO AND TWO UNTO NOAH 
INTO THE ARK, THE MALE AND THE FEMALE, AS GOD 
HAD COMMANDED NOAH. 
Genesis 7:10  And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of 
the flood were upon the earth. 
Genesis 7:11  IN THE SIX HUNDREDTH YEAR OF NOAH'S 
LIFE, IN THE SECOND MONTH, THE SEVENTEENTH DAY OF 
THE MONTH, THE SAME DAY WERE ALL THE FOUNTAINS 
OF THE GREAT DEEP BROKEN UP, AND THE WINDOWS OF 
HEAVEN WERE OPENED. 
Genesis 7:12  And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty 
nights. 
Genesis 7:13  IN THE SELFSAME DAY ENTERED NOAH, AND 
SHEM, AND HAM, AND JAPHETH, THE SONS OF NOAH, AND 
NOAH'S WIFE, AND THE THREE WIVES OF HIS SONS WITH 
THEM, INTO THE ARK; 
Genesis 7:14  THEY, AND EVERY BEAST AFTER HIS KIND, 
AND ALL THE CATTLE AFTER THEIR KIND, AND EVERY 
CREEPING THING THAT CREEPETH UPON THE EARTH 
AFTER HIS KIND, AND EVERY FOWL AFTER HIS KIND, 
EVERY BIRD OF EVERY SORT. 
Genesis 7:15  AND THEY WENT IN UNTO NOAH INTO THE 
ARK, TWO AND TWO OF ALL FLESH, WHEREIN IS THE 
BREATH OF LIFE. 
Genesis 7:16  AND THEY THAT WENT IN, WENT IN MALE 
AND FEMALE OF ALL FLESH, AS GOD HAD COMMANDED 
HIM: and the Lord shut him in. 
Genesis 7:17  And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the 
waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the 
earth. 
Genesis 7:18  And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly 
upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. 
Genesis 7:19  And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; 
and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were 
covered. 
Genesis 7:20  Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the 
mountains were covered. 
Genesis 7:21  AND ALL FLESH DIED THAT MOVED UPON 
THE EARTH, BOTH OF FOWL, AND OF CATTLE, AND OF 
BEAST, AND OF EVERY CREEPING THING THAT CREEPETH 
UPON THE EARTH, AND EVERY MAN: 
Genesis 7:22  All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that 
was in the dry land, died. 
Genesis 7:23  And every living substance was destroyed which was 
upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping 
things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the 
earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in 
the ark. 
Genesis 7:24  AND THE WATERS PREVAILED UPON THE 
EARTH AN HUNDRED AND FIFTY DAYS. 


Genesis 8:
------------- 
Genesis 8:1  AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH, AND EVERY 
LIVING THING, AND ALL THE CATTLE THAT WAS WITH 
HIM IN THE ARK: AND GOD MADE A WIND TO PASS OVER 
THE EARTH, AND THE WATERS ASSWAGED; 
Genesis 8:2  THE FOUNTAINS ALSO OF THE DEEP AND THE 
WINDOWS OF HEAVEN WERE STOPPED, and the rain from 
heaven was restrained; 
Genesis 8:3  And the waters returned from off the earth continually: 
AND AFTER THE END OF THE HUNDRED AND FIFTY DAYS 
THE WATERS WERE ABATED. 
Genesis 8:4  AND THE ARK RESTED IN THE SEVENTH 
MONTH, ON THE SEVENTEENTH DAY OF THE MONTH, 
UPON THE MOUNTAINS OF ARARAT. 
Genesis 8:5  AND THE WATERS DECREASED CONTINUALLY 
UNTIL THE TENTH MONTH: IN THE TENTH MONTH, ON 
THE FIRST DAY OF THE MONTH, WERE THE TOPS OF THE 
MOUNTAINS SEEN. 
Genesis 8:6  And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah 
opened the window of the ark which he had made: 
Genesis 8:7  AND HE SENT FORTH A RAVEN, WHICH WENT 
FORTH TO AND FRO, UNTIL THE WATERS WERE DRIED UP 
FROM OFF THE EARTH. 
Genesis 8:8  Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters 
were abated from off the face of the ground; 
Genesis 8:9  But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and 
she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of 
the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled 
her in unto him into the ark. 
Genesis 8:10  And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent 
forth the dove out of the ark; 
Genesis 8:11  And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in 
her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters 
were abated from off the earth. 
Genesis 8:12  And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the 
dove; which returned not again unto him any more. 
Genesis 8:13  AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE SIX 
HUNDREDTH AND FIRST YEAR, IN THE FIRST MONTH, THE 
FIRST DAY OF THE MONTH, THE WATERS WERE DRIED UP 
FROM OFF THE EARTH: and Noah removed the covering of the 
ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. 
Genesis 8:14  AND IN THE SECOND MONTH, ON THE SEVEN 
AND TWENTIETH DAY OF THE MONTH, WAS THE EARTH 
DRIED. 
Genesis 8:15  AND GOD SPAKE UNTO NOAH, SAYING, 
Genesis 8:16  GO FORTH OF THE ARK, THOU, AND THY WIFE, 
AND THY SONS, AND THY SONS' WIVES WITH THEE. 
Genesis 8:17  BRING FORTH WITH THEE EVERY LIVING 
THING THAT IS WITH THEE, OF ALL FLESH, BOTH OF 
FOWL, AND OF CATTLE, AND OF EVERY CREEPING THING 
THAT CREEPETH UPON THE EARTH; THAT THEY MAY 
BREED ABUNDANTLY IN THE EARTH, AND BE FRUITFUL, 
AND MULTIPLY UPON THE EARTH. 
Genesis 8:18  AND NOAH WENT FORTH, AND HIS SONS, AND 
HIS WIFE, AND HIS SONS' WIVES WITH HIM: 
Genesis 8:19  EVERY BEAST, EVERY CREEPING THING, AND 
EVERY FOWL, AND WHATSOEVER CREEPETH UPON THE 
EARTH, AFTER THEIR KINDS, WENT FORTH OUT OF THE 
ARK. 
Genesis 8:20  And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of 
every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings 
on the altar. 
Genesis 8:21  And the Lord smelled a sweet savour; and the Lord said 
in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; 
for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I 
again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. 
Genesis 8:22  While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and 
cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not 
cease 

 Well known today:
-----------------------
All of this has become so firmly established in accepted scientific fact 
that even Grolier's encyclopedia (Academic American encyclopedia) 
now readily admits it.  Under the heading "Divisions of the Old 
Testament" it states: "The Pentateuch is based on four principal 
sources.  The oldest, J, was perhaps written in Judah, the southern 
kingdom, about 950 BC.  Between 900 and 750, another version from 
Israel, the northern kingdom, was woven in;  this is called EPHRAIM 
(E). In the 7th century BC, Deuteronomy, or most of it (D), was 
compiled.  About 550 BC, during the exile, the final edition of the 
Torah added a priestly source (P), some parts of which are very old". 


Mr. Richard Elliot Friedman is a professor on the faculty of the 
University of California, San Diego. He earned his Doctorate in 
Hebrew Bible at Harvard University.  He is one of many scholars who 
have attempted to critically study these "source" documents of the 
"five books of Moses" in order to arrive at the identity of the authors, 
the time period when each was written, the motives for writing each 
narrative, and other information.  In his book "Who wrote the Bible", 
Prof. Friedman presents strong evidence that each "source document" 
was written by a person or persons who, while on the face of it seem 
to narrate the same stories, in actuality had distinctly different goals 
they wished to achieve. 

According to Mr. Friedman's research, each source emphasizes a 
certain branch of the Jews, their nobility, birth right, and closeness to 
God.  Sometimes at the price of other branches of the Jews.  For 
instance, J was written by descendants of Judah, E came from 
descendants of Israel, and P was written by a priest from the 
descendants of Aaron.  According to Mr. Friedman, the P (Priestly) 
source seems to be particularly interested in priests, their lineage, their 
being the only ones who are allowed to sacrifice to God, the 
importance of sacrifice to God, and the surprising absence of all 
stories wherein anyone not of their lineage made a sacrifice that was 
accepted by God (for instance the sacrifice of the sons of Adam is 
missing from this narrative).  It also contains stories of how all those 
who attempted to make sacrifices to God without the agency of an 
Aaronid priest were killed by God. 

The author goes on to show how in J and E we can find similar 
emphasis on one tribe of the Jews over the other.  For instance, on 
pages 64-65 he shows how both the J and E documents attempt to 
give the birthright of Jacob to their own forefathers.  He also shows 
how in the E version, Joseph is saved by his brother Ruben (the 
firstborn of Israel), while in the J version it is Judah who saves him.  
The author presents countless other proofs of these claims. 

The JE texts emphasize the prophet (Moses).  They depict Aaron as 
having fashioned the golden calf.  They also describe Aaron and his 
sister Meriam as having criticized Moses and having been chastised by 
God himself for this.  They regularly have God saying "and Yahweh 
said unto Moses....".  The P document (written by Aaronid priests), 
however, usually states: "and Yahweh said unto Moses and unto 
Aaron.....".  In this document, the staff Moses used to perform his 
miracles is called "Aaron's staff".  In the P document Aaron is also 
named as the firstborn brother of Moses.  Also, as mentioned 
previously, in the P text no mention is made of any sacrifices to God 
whatsoever until the last chapter of Exodus wherein we find the story 
of Aaron's sacrifice when he was consecrated as high priest.  After 
that, all sacrifices are performed by Aaron and his sons.  In other 
words, the author of P gives no precedence for sacrifice for anyone 
other than an Aaronid priest.  There are even a couple of places in this 
document which denigrate Moses (pbuh).  They depicts Moses (pbuh) 
as sinning and Aaron suffering for Moses's sin. 


The rest of the books of the Jews:
---------------------------------------
Well, what about the rest of the Old Testament?.  Are the remaining 
books of the Old Testament known to have been preserved from 
change since the time of their first writing and truly to be the words of 
the claimed authors?.  No!.  Once again, Groliers encyclopedia tells 
us: ".....Joshua tells of a thorough conquest of Canaan, but Judges 
contains traditions of the Hebrew tribes in the period before the 
monarchy that reveal the conquest as partial.  The books of Samuel 
are about the founding of the monarchy under SAUL and David and 
contain a magnificent early source for the life of David, probably 
written about 961-22 BC. ALL THE ABOVE BOOKS HAVE BEEN 
EXTENSIVELY EDITED BY WRITERS WHO SHARED THE 
THEOLOGY OF THE D SOURCE". 

There is much more which could be said about these matters, 
however, we will leave it up to the interested student to obtain a copy 
of Mr. Freidman's book and read his comments.  Fourteen hundred 
years ago, back when it was a blasphemy of the highest order 
punishable by death to dare allege that the claimed authors of the 
Bible were not the true authors, e.g. that Moses (pbuh) did not write 
the "books of Moses", the Qur'an was sent down upon Mohammad 
(pbuh) by God almighty with the claim that "the people of the Book" 
(Jews and Christians) had changed the book of God.  Mohammad 
(pbuh) further claimed that he was sent with the true religion of God 
which was sent down upon Moses and Jesus (peace be upon them 
all).  The Jews and Christians responded that Muslims were ignorant 
savages who had concocted their own religion by copying Judaism 
and Christianity, and only an insane person would ever make such 
allegations.  We invite the reader to judge for themselves who was 
telling the truth. 


The books of the Christians:
----------------------------------
Is all of this restricted to the Old Testament?.  No!.  Christian scholars 
today call the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, the "Synoptic" 
(One eyed) Gospels. This is because they all seem to have had access 
to a common source document they were working from when they 
wrote their Gospels.  This source document is called 'Q'.  Now they 
are beginning to recognize that the alleged authors are not the true 
authors (see chapters 3.1, and 3.2).  Similarly, countless verses of the 
Gospel of John, as well as other historical discrepancies, also go to 
show that John did not write the Gospel of John.  Some scholars are 
now beginning to suspect that 'Q' may indeed be the Gospel of 
Barnabas.  It is much larger than the others, by all measures it is an 
authentic Gospel (see chapter 11), and it contains all of the stories 
contained in these three Gospels without the contradictions found 
therein. 


"Of the Jews are those change words from their places and say: "We 
hear (your words O Mohammad) and disobey; hear you as one who 
hears not" and "give us concession" with a twist of their tongues and 
as a mockery of religion(Islam). But if only they had said: "We hear 
and we obey" and "Do make us understand" it would have been better 
for them and more upright. But Allah has cursed them for their 
disbelief, so they believe not, except a few".  The Qur'an, Al-
Nissa(4):46. 

"Then woe to those who write the book (of God) with their own 
hands and then say: 'This is from Allah', to traffic with it for a 
miserable price.  Woe to them for what their hands do write and for 
the gain they make thereby" The holy Qur'an Al-Bakarah(2):79 

A different approach:
Specific contradictions in the books of the Jews:
---------------------------------------------------------
The following are pairs of verses which contradict one another in
the books of the Jews:

2 Samuel 8:4(7 HUNDRED horsemen)
1 Chronicles 18:4(7 THOUSAND horsemen)

1 Chronicles 21:12(THREE years famine) 
2 Samuel 24:13(SEVEN years famine)

Deuteronomy 2:19 & Deuteronomy 2:37(Moses deprived land of 
Ammon)
Joshua 13:24-25(Moses gives land of Ammon as inheritance)

2 Samuel 24:9(800,000+500,000)
1 Chronicles 21:5(1,100,000+470,000)

2 Chronicles 36:9(EIGHT years, three months +10 days)
2 Kings 24:8 (EIGHTEEN years, three months)

2 Samuel 10:18(700, 40,000 HORSEMEN)
1 Chronicles 19:18(7000, 40,000 FOOTMEN)

1 Kings 7:26(TWO thousand baths)
2 Chronicles 4:5(THREE thousand baths)

2 Samuel 6:23(Michal had NO children)
2 Samuel 21:8(Michal had FIVE sons)

Genesis6:3(mankind shall not live past 120 years)
Genesis 11:10-32 (500,438,433,464,...etc.)

2 Chronicles 9:25(4,000 stalls)
1 Kings 4:26(40,000 stalls)

Isaiah 40:28 (God does not FAINT nor WEARY)
Exodus 31:17 (God RESTED, and was REFRESHED.)

Genisis 1: (God creates Plants, THEN animals, THEN man and 
woman.)
Genesis 2: (God creates man, THEN plants, THEN animals, THEN 
woman)

Ezekiel 45 and Ezekiel 46 (DOCTRINES of offerings and sacrifices)
Numbers 28 and Numbers 29 (CONTRADICTORY DOCTRINES of 
offerings and sacrifices)

1 Chronicles 8:29-38 (One list of NAMES)
1 Chronicles 9:35-44 (A CONTRADICTORY list of NAMES)

2 Samuel 5 and 2 Samuel 6 (David brought the ark AFTER fighting 
the Philistines)
1 Samuel 13 and 1 Samuel 14 (David brought the ark BEFORE 
fighting the Philistines)

Genesis 6:19-20 (Noah was to bring onto the ark "of EVERY living 
thing of all flesh, TWO of EVERY sort shalt thou bring into the ark, 
to keep them alive ....male and female....of fowls....of cattle....of every 
creeping thing of the earth...").
Genesis 7:2-3 (Noah was to bring onto the ark "Of every CLEAN 
beast thou shalt take to thee by SEVENS, the male and his female: 
and of beasts that are NOT CLEAN by TWO, the male and his 
female.  Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the 
female...").

2 Samuel 8:1 ("David took METHEGAMMAH out of the hand of 
the Philistines").
1 Chronicles 18:1 ("David...took GATH and her towns out of the 
hand of the Philistines").

2 Samuel 8:8 ("And from BETAH, and from BEROTHAI, cities of 
Hadadezer, king David took exceeding much brass").
1 Chronicles 18:8  ("Likewise from TIBHATH, and from CHUN, 
cities of Hadarezer, brought David very much brass").

2 Samuel 8:10  ("Then Toi sent JORAM his son unto king David")
1 Chronicles 18:10  ("He sent HADORAM his son to king David")

2 Samuel 8:12  ("Of SYRIA, and of Moab, and of the children of 
Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek").
1 Chronicles 18:11 ("from EDOM, and from Moab, and from the 
children of Ammon, and from the Philistines, and from Amalek.

2 Samuel 8:13  ("And David gat him a name when he returned from 
smiting of the SYRIANS in the valley of salt, being eighteen thousand 
men").
1 Chronicles 18:13 ("And he put garrisons in EDOM; and all the 
EDOMITES became David's servants").

2 Samuel 8:17  ("and SERAIAH was the scribe")
1 Chronicles 18:16 ("and SHAVSHA was scribe")

1 Kings 15:33-16:6 ("In the THIRD year of Asa king of Judah began 
Baasha the son Ahijah to reign over all Israel in Tirzah, TWENTY 
FOUR years..... So Baasha slept with his fathers, and was BURIED 
in Tirzah"). 3+24=27.
2 Chronicles 16:1  ("In the THIRTY SIXTH year of the reign of Asa, 
Baasha king of Israel came up against Judah").  But he died in the 
twenty seventh year!.  Was he resurected?.  So how did he invade 
Judah 10 years after his death?.

Ezra 2:6 (2812)
Nehemiah 7:11 (2818)

Ezra 2:8 (945)
Nehemiah 7:13 (845)

Ezra 2:12 (1222)
Nehemiah 7:17 (2322)

Ezra 2:15 (454)
Nehemiah 7:20 (655)

Ezra 2:19 (223)
Nehemiah 7:22 (328)

Ezra 2:28 (223)
Nehemiah 7:32 (123)

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